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My first domain-specific language with Racket. Step 1: Execution

In the previous post, I have sketched an informal specification of a small hardware description language called Tiny-HDL. Our goal is to execute circuit descriptions, written in Tiny-HDL, on the Racket platform. Which means that we need to implement a compiler from Tiny-HDL to Racket.

As explained in the proposed language implementation roadmap, we will start in the execution step, with a hand-written Racket example program that implements the Tiny-HDL concepts.

The two main building blocks provided by Tiny-HDL are entities and architectures. An entity declares the ports of a family of circuits, and an architecture implements a specific behavior. With this distinction in mind, I have chosen to translate Tiny-HDL into the following Racket constructs:


Let’s translate the half-adder entity into Racket code. In Tiny-HDL, this entity looks like this:

(entity half-adder ([input a] [input b] [output s] [output co]))

In Racket, a basic structure type declaration could be:

(struct half-adder (a b s co))

As you can see, the input and output modes have disappeared in the translation. Preserving this information would be useful if we planned to check assignment errors at runtime. However, in a language like Tiny-HDL, it might be a better idea to detect such errors at compile time in a semantic checking stage.

Now, let us consider how the half-adder structure type will be used in the context of the full adder example:

  1. Architecture half-adder-arch will be translated into a constructor function that will create an instance of the half-adder structure type, and populate its fields s and co.
  2. In architecture full-adder-arch, the constructor of half-adder-arch will be called twice to create instances h1 and h2. The assignments to (h1 a), (h1 b), (h2 a), and (h2 b) will set the fields a and b in half-adder structure instances.

In this example, we can see that some fields need to be set outside of the function that instantiates a given structure type. To make this possible in Racket, we will mark all fields #:mutable (technically, only the input ports should be made mutable, but the translation will be easier like this). The #:auto modifier will also be added, so that all fields now have #f (false) as their default value.

(struct half-adder ([a #:auto] [b #:auto] [s #:auto] [co #:auto]) #:mutable)


An architecture is translated into a function that returns an instance of a structure type. Here is the skeleton of the constructor for architecture half-adder-arch:

(define (half-adder-arch)
  (define self (half-adder))

Inside the body of an architecture, each Tiny-HDL statement will be translated into a Racket statement:

Assignments and expressions

To read and write ports, we can call the accessors of the corresponding structure fields. Here is a naive translation of the body of architecture half-adder-arch:

(assign s  (xor a b))
(assign co (and a b)))


; Warning: this does not work!
(set-half-adder-s!  self (xor (half-adder-a self) (half-adder-b self)))
(set-half-adder-co! self (and (half-adder-a self) (half-adder-b self)))

Remember that the function half-adder-arch is intended to be a constructor: it must not compute the xor and and operations immediately. Moreover, fields a and b are still empty.

We want to populate the fields s and co with expressions that will be evaluated later. To achieve that, we will wrap each expression in a lambda function like this:

(set-half-adder-s!  self (λ () (xor ((half-adder-a self)) ((half-adder-b self)))))
(set-half-adder-co! self (λ () (and ((half-adder-a self)) ((half-adder-b self)))))

Since fields a and b are supposed to contain lambdas as well, we also need an additional pair of parentheses around each call to half-adder-a and half-adder-b.

Note: if you find this code ugly, remember that our ultimate goal is to generate it automatically. As soon as the code generator is working, we will no longer need to look at the result.

Instantiation statements

Architecture full-adder-arch creates two instances of half-adder-arch.

(instance h1 half-adder-arch)
(instance h2 half-adder-arch)

A straightforward translation consists in calling the constructor half-adder-arch twice, assigning the results to variables like this:

(define h1 (half-adder-arch))
(define h2 (half-adder-arch))

Now that variables h1 and h2 are populated with instances of the half-adder structure type, we can use the same techniques as above to read and write their ports:

(assign (h2 a) (h1 s))


(set-half-adder-a! h2 (λ () ((half-adder-s h1))))

Getting and running the complete example

The complete implementation of Tiny-HDL is available on GitHub. The git repository contains one branch per step. In branch step-01, you will find the following files:

Getting the source code for step 1

Clone the git repository and switch to branch step-01:

git clone
cd Tiny-HDL-Racket
git checkout step-01

Running the example

Run full-adder-step-01-test.rkt with Racket:

racket examples/full-adder-step-01-test.rkt

The result should look like:

 a  b ci     s co
#f #f #f -> #f #f
#f #f #t -> #t #f
#f #t #f -> #t #f
#f #t #t -> #f #t
#t #f #f -> #t #f
#t #f #t -> #f #t
#t #t #f -> #f #t
#t #t #t -> #t #t

Now that we know how to describe and simulate digital circuits with Racket, let’s implement a code generator.